Bundesgericht
Tribunal fédéral
Tribunale federale
Tribunal federal

4A 44/2019

Urteil vom 20. September 2019

I. zivilrechtliche Abteilung

Besetzung
Bundesrichterin Kiss, Präsidentin,
Bundesrichterinnen Hohl, Niquille, May Canellas Bundesrichter von Werdt,
Gerichtsschreiber Stähle.

Verfahrensbeteiligte
A.________,
vertreten durch Rechtsanwalt Philippe Matthys,
Beschwerdeführer,

gegen

B.________ S.A.,
vertreten durch Rechtsanwalt Daniel Zbinden,
Beschwerdegegnerin.

Gegenstand
Anfechtung eines Generalversammlungsbeschlusses, Rechtshängigkeit,

Beschwerde gegen den Entscheid des Handelsgerichts des Kantons Bern vom 6. Dezember 2018 (HG 17 169).

Sachverhalt:

A.
Am 28. August 2017 reichte A.________ (Beschwerdeführer) bei der Schlichtungsbehörde Berner Jura-Seeland ein Schlichtungsgesuch gegen die B.________ S.A. (Beschwerdegegnerin) ein. Er beantragte was folgt:
Der Beschluss der Generalversammlung der B.________ S.A. vom 27. Juni 2017 für das Geschäftsjahr vom 1. Januar 2016-31. Dezember 2016 betreffend dem Traktandum 4 "Beschlussfassung: Abnahme der Jahresrechnung, Verwendung des Jahresergebnisses, Entlastung der Verwaltungsorgane" sei aufzuheben.

Mit Entscheid vom 31. August 2017 trat die Schlichtungsbehörde auf das Schlichtungsgesuch mit der Begründung nicht ein, das Handelsgericht sei sachlich zuständig. Dieser Entscheid blieb unangefochten.
Am 2. Oktober 2017 reichte A.________ gegen die B.________ S.A. Klage beim Handelsgericht des Kantons Bern ein. Das Rechtsbegehren entsprach jenem in seinem Schlichtungsgesuch. Dieses legte er in Kopie bei. In der Sache führte er einleitend aus, die Schlichtungsbehörde habe sein Gesuch mangels Zuständigkeit zurückgewiesen. Er reiche die Eingabe innert Monatsfrist beim zuständigen Gericht ein, womit für die Rechtshängigkeit nach Art. 53
CPC Art. 53 Right to be heard SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The parties have the right to be heard.
2    They have in particular the right to consult the case files and to obtain copies thereof provided this does not conflict with overriding public or private interests.
ZPO (recte: Art. 63
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO) das Datum der ersten Einreichung gelte. Die Klage entspreche wortgleich dem Schlichtungsgesuch.
Mit Verfügung vom 5. Oktober 2017 hielt der Instruktionsrichter am Handelsgericht unter anderem fest, die Rechtshängigkeit der Klage sei am 2. Oktober 2017 eingetreten. Auf telefonische Nachfrage des Rechtsvertreters von A.________ erklärte die Gerichtsschreiberin, es handle sich um eine prozessleitende Verfügung und nicht um den definitiven Entscheid zur Frage der Rechtshängigkeit. Sie verwies auf BGE 141 III 481 E. 3.2.4, wonach das Original der ersten Eingabe einzureichen sei. Am 11. Oktober 2017 reichte A.________ das Schlichtungsgesuch im Original mit Eingangsstempel und samt Beweismitteldossier ein.
Mit Entscheid vom 6. Dezember 2018 wies das Handelsgericht die Klage ab.

B.
A.________ verlangt mit Beschwerde in Zivilsachen, der Entscheid des Handelsgerichts vom 6. Dezember 2018 sei aufzuheben. Die Klage vom 2. Oktober 2017 sei "hinsichtlich des beschränkten Prozessthemas des Vorliegens der Prozessvoraussetzungen sowie der Einhaltung der Verwirkungsfrist gemäss Art. 706a
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
OR" gutzuheissen und "hinsichtlich der Anfechtung des Generalversammlungsbeschlusses vom 27. Juni 2017" an das Handelsgericht zur Beurteilung zurückzuweisen. Eventualiter sei der Entscheid aufzuheben und die Klage zur Neubeurteilung an das Handelsgericht zurückzuweisen.
Das Handelsgericht verzichtete auf Vernehmlassung. Die B.________ S.A. begehrt, die Beschwerde sei abzuweisen. A.________ replizierte, worauf die B.________ S.A. eine Duplik eingereicht hat.
Mit Präsidialverfügung vom 5. März 2019 wurde festgestellt, dass der Beschwerde nicht von Gesetzes wegen aufschiebende Wirkung zukommt, und es wurde von einer Anordnung der aufschiebenden Wirkung oder von vorsorglichen Massnahmen abgesehen.

Erwägungen:

1.
Das angefochtene Urteil des Handelsgerichts ist ein Endentscheid (Art. 90
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
BGG) einer einzigen kantonalen Instanz im Sinne von Art. 75 Abs. 2 lit. b
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
BGG. Dagegen steht grundsätzlich die Beschwerde in Zivilsachen offen, gemäss Art. 74 Abs. 2 lit. b
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
BGG unabhängig vom Streitwert (BGE 139 III 67 E. 1.2; siehe auch BGE 138 III 799 E. 1.1, 2 E. 1.2.2 S. 5). Da auch die übrigen Sachurteilsvoraussetzungen erfüllt sind, ist auf die Beschwerde einzutreten.

2.

2.1. Das Recht, Beschlüsse der Generalversammlung anzufechten, erlischt, wenn die Klage nicht spätestens zwei Monate nach der Generalversammlung angehoben wird (Art. 706a Abs. 1
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
OR). Für die Wahrung einer gesetzlichen Frist des Privatrechts, die auf den Zeitpunkt der Klage, der Klageanhebung oder auf einen anderen verfahrenseinleitenden Schritt abstellt, ist die Rechtshängigkeit nach der Schweizerischen Zivilprozessordnung massgebend (Art. 64 Abs. 2
CPC Art. 64 Effects of pendency SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The pendency of an action has in particular the following effects:
a  the subject matter of the dispute may not be made pending elsewhere between the same parties;
b  the territorial jurisdiction of the court is maintained.
2    When compliance with statutory deadline under private law depends on the date of the statement of claim, of raising an action or of another act initiating legal proceedings, the relevant moment is that of pendency in accordance with this Code.
ZPO). Wird eine Eingabe, die mangels Zuständigkeit zurückgezogen oder auf die nicht eingetreten wurde, innert eines Monats seit dem Rückzug oder dem Nichteintretensentscheid bei der zuständigen Schlichtungsbehörde oder beim zuständigen Gericht neu eingereicht, so gilt als Zeitpunkt der Rechtshängigkeit das Datum der ersten Einreichung (Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO).

2.2. Die Vorinstanz erwog, der Beschwerdeführer habe mit seinem Schlichtungsgesuch vom 28. August 2017 die zweimonatige Frist gemäss Art. 706a Abs. 1
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
OR gewahrt. Es stelle sich die Frage, ob dieses Datum auch als Zeitpunkt der Rechtshängigkeit der am 2. Oktober 2017 beim Handelsgericht eingereichten Klage gelte. Dies sei zu verneinen: Nach der bundesgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung müsse die gleiche Rechtsschrift, die ursprünglich beim (unzuständigen) Gericht eingegeben worden sei, im Original samt Eingangsstempel neu eingereicht werden. Der Beschwerdeführer habe dies erst mit Eingabe vom 11. Oktober 2017 getan und damit nicht innert eines Monats seit dem Nichteintretensentscheid der Schlichtungsbehörde vom 31. August 2017 (ihm am 1. September 2017 zugestellt). Die Klage sei daher abzuweisen.

2.3. Der Beschwerdeführer entgegnet im Wesentlichen, er habe die Eingabe als Klage betitelt, neu datiert und mit dem Hinweis ergänzt, dass die Rechtshängigkeit der ersten Eingabe für die Wahrung der Verwirkungsfrist nach Art. 706a Abs. 1
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
OR massgebend sei. Im Übrigen seien die Rechtsschriften wortgleich gewesen. Das kopierte "Original" des Schlichtungsgesuchs habe er gar als Beilage zur Klageschrift eingereicht. Dem Grundgedanken und Schutzzweck von Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO entsprechend sei die Rechtshängigkeit unter diesen Umständen rückzudatieren und damit am 28. August 2017 (Einreichung Schlichtungsgesuch) begründet worden.

3.

3.1. Die Schlichtungsbehörde fällte mangels sachlicher Zuständigkeit einen - unangefochten gebliebenen - Nichteintretensentscheid (vgl. Art. 6 Abs. 4 lit. b
CPC Art. 6 Commercial Court SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The cantons may designate a special court that has jurisdiction as sole cantonal instance for commercial disputes (Commercial Court).
2    A dispute is considered commercial, if:
a  it concerns the commercial activity of at least one party;
b  the decision is subject to an objection in civil matters to the Federal Supreme Court; and
c  the parties are registered in the Swiss Commercial Registry or in an equivalent foreign registry.
3    If only the defendant is registered in the Swiss Commercial Register or in an equivalent foreign register, but all the other conditions are met, the plaintiff may choose between the Commercial Court and the ordinary court.
4    The cantons may also assign to the Commercial Court:
a  the disputes mentioned in Article 5 paragraph 1;
b  the disputes relating to the law of commercial companies and cooperatives.
5    The Commercial Court is also competent to order interim measures before an action is pending.
ZPO i.V.m. Art. 7 Abs. 2 des Einführungsgesetzes zur Zivilprozessordnung, zur Strafprozessordnung und zur Jugendstrafprozessordnung des Kantons Bern vom 11. Juni 2009 [BSG 271.1]). Darauf ist an dieser Stelle nicht einzugehen (siehe immerhin zur Ungültigkeit der Klagebewilligung einer offensichtlich unzuständigen Schlichtungsbehörde: BGE 139 III 273 E. 2). Der Beschwerdeführer gelangte danach an das Handelsgericht. Die grundsätzliche Anwendbarkeit von Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO auf die vorliegende Konstellation war vor Vorinstanz nicht umstritten (siehe auch Urteil 4A 592/2013 vom 4. März 2014 E. 3.2 mit Hinweisen). Gleiches gilt für den Beginn der Monatsfrist (vgl. BGE 138 III 610 E. 2).

3.2. Das Bundesgericht hielt in BGE 141 III 481 E. 3.2.4 S. 487 f. fest, die Rückdatierung der Rechtshängigkeit im Sinne von Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO setze voraus, dass der Ansprecher die gleiche Rechtsschrift, die er ursprünglich bei einem unzuständigen Gericht eingegeben habe, im Original bei der von ihm für zuständig gehaltenen Behörde neu einreiche; die von ihm ursprünglich angerufene, unzuständige Behörde habe ihm zu diesem Zweck auf sein Verlangen hin die mit ihrem Eingangsstempel versehene Originaleingabe zurückzusenden. Es stehe dem Ansprecher darüber hinaus frei, der neu eingereichten Eingabe ein erklärendes Begleitschreiben beizufügen, das namentlich Ausführungen darüber enthalten könne, dass zunächst eine unzuständige Behörde angerufen worden sei und nun eine Neueinreichung der Eingabe bei der für zuständig erachteten Instanz erfolge.

3.3. Dieses Urteil ist weder in der Lehre noch der publizierten kantonalen Rechtsprechung auf substanziellen Widerstand gestossen. Teilweise wird verlangt, eine neu geschriebene Klageschrift müsse vorgelegt werden können, wenn zunächst fälschlicherweise eine Schlichtungsbehörde statt ein Gericht angerufen worden sei (CHRISTOPH LEUENBERGER, Die Rechtsprechung des Bundesgerichts zum Zivilprozessrecht im Jahr 2015, ZBJV 2017 S. 243; LEUENBERGER/ UFFER-TOBLER, Schweizerisches Zivilprozessrecht, 2. Aufl. 2016, S. 186 Rz. 7.18a). Nach einem Teil der Lehre schliesse das bundesgerichtliche Urteil die Anwendung von Art. 63
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO auf Fälle gerade aus, in denen nach einem Nichteintretensentscheid der Schlichtungsbehörde das (Handels-) Gericht angerufen werde (DAETWYLER/STALDER, Allgemeiner Verfahrensgang und Zuständigkeit des Handelsgerichts, in: Handelsgericht Zürich 1866-2016, 2016, S. 157). Weiter soll es -so wird vertreten - möglich sein, eine Eingabe anzupassen, wenn sie nicht im richtigen Verfahren eingereicht worden sei (Art. 63 Abs. 2
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO; vgl. FRANÇOIS BOHNET, in: Commentaire romand, Code de procédure civile, 2. Aufl. 2019, N. 27 zu Art. 63
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO). Das Kantonsgericht Waadt beurteilte einen Fall, in dem der Kläger seine Rechtsschrift um
Ausführungen zum Prozess vor dem zunächst angerufenen, örtlich unzuständigen Gericht und zur Zulässigkeit der neuen Eingabe ergänzte. Das Kantonsgericht billigte ihm in ausdrücklicher Abweichung von BGE 141 III 481 die Rückdatierung der Rechtshängigkeit zu. Es sei überspitzt formalistisch, zu diesen Fragen ein Begleitschreiben zu verlangen, zumal die neuen tatsächlichen und rechtlichen Vorbringen in der Klageschrift klar und schnell erkennbar gewesen seien (Entscheid PT16.016938-170204 216 vom 6. Juni 2017 E. 4.4).

3.4. Der Bundesrat regt im Rahmen seiner Vernehmlassungsvorlage zur Änderung der Zivilprozessordnung (Verbesserung der Praxistauglichkeit und der Rechtsdurchsetzung) vom 2. März 2018 an, einen neuen Art. 60a
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO mit folgendem Wortlaut zu schaffen:
Tritt das Gericht mangels Zuständigkeit nicht auf eine Klage oder ein Gesuch ein, so wird der Prozess auf Antrag der klagenden oder gesuchstellenden Partei dem von ihr bezeichneten Gericht überwiesen, wenn dieses nicht offensichtlich unzuständig ist. Die Rechtshängigkeit bleibt durch die Ü berweisung erhalten.

Die Stellungnahmen der Vernehmlassungsteilnehmer zu dieser Bestimmung fielen - soweit ersichtlich - unterschiedlich aus. Im Erläuternden Bericht vom 2. März 2018 wird zu Art. 60a VE-ZPO unter anderem festgehalten, die vorgeschlagene gerichtliche Überweisung der Klage oder des Gesuchs an das bezeichnete Gericht komme im Ergebnis der Neueinreichung nach Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO gleich (S. 34; siehe im Übrigen den bundesrätlichen Vorschlag einer gerichtlichen Weiterleitungspflicht in Art. 143 Abs. 1bis VE-ZPO betreffend "Eingaben, die innert der Frist irrtümlich bei einem offensichtlich unzuständigen schweizerischen Gericht eingereicht werden").

3.5. Bei der vom Beschwerdeführer zunächst eingereichten Eingabe handelt es sich um ein Schlichtungsgesuch. Es stellt sich die Frage, wie es sich damit verhält.

3.5.1. Ein Schlichtungsgesuch hat grundsätzlich nur den Vorgaben von Art. 202
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
ZPO zu genügen. Die Vorinstanz räumte dem Beschwerdeführer eine Nachfrist ein, um den Streitwert anzugeben (vgl. Art. 221 Abs. 1 lit. c
CPC Art. 221 Statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The statement of claim contains:
a  the designation of the parties and their representatives, if any:
b  the prayers for relief;
c  a statement of the value in dispute;
d  the allegations of fact;
e  notice of the evidence offered for each allegation of fact;
f  the date and signature.
2    The following must be filed together with the statement of claim:
a  a power of attorney where a party is represented;
b  the authorisation to proceed or the declaration that conciliation is being waived, if applicable;
c  the available physical records to be offered in evidence;
d  a list of the evidence offered.
3    The statement of claim may include a statement of legal grounds.
ZPO). Davon abgesehen behauptet dieser nicht und ist auch nicht ersichtlich, dass das bei der Schlichtungsbehörde Berner Jura-Seeland eingereichte Schlichtungsgesuch die gesetzlichen Anforderungen an eine beim Handelsgericht des Kantons Bern einzugebenden Klageschrift (vgl. insbesondere Art. 129 f
CPC Art. 129 - The proceedings shall be held in the official language of the canton in which the case is heard. Cantons that recognise two or more official languages shall regulate their use in the proceedings. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
. und Art. 221
CPC Art. 221 Statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The statement of claim contains:
a  the designation of the parties and their representatives, if any:
b  the prayers for relief;
c  a statement of the value in dispute;
d  the allegations of fact;
e  notice of the evidence offered for each allegation of fact;
f  the date and signature.
2    The following must be filed together with the statement of claim:
a  a power of attorney where a party is represented;
b  the authorisation to proceed or the declaration that conciliation is being waived, if applicable;
c  the available physical records to be offered in evidence;
d  a list of the evidence offered.
3    The statement of claim may include a statement of legal grounds.
ZPO) nicht erfüllt hätte. Jedenfalls auf diesen Fall, in dem das eingereichte Schlichtungsgesuch den Anforderungen an eine Klageschrift entspricht, ist die mit BGE 141 III 481 begründete Rechtsprechung anzuwenden:

3.5.2. Die Frage ist in einer solchen Situation grundsätzlich gleich zu beurteilen wie wenn zunächst ein unzuständiges Gericht angerufen wird. Auch wenn eine Eingabe anfänglich bei einer unzuständigen Schlichtungsbehörde eingereicht wird, darf die klagende Partei nicht bevorteilt werden: Würde eine Änderung der Rechtsschrift zugelassen, profitierte sie von den Vorzügen der Rechtshängigkeit, ohne die damit verbundenen Lasten zu tragen. Soweit Verbesserungen und Ergänzungen der ursprünglichen Eingabe erforderlich sind oder der Ansprecher solche für notwendig erachtet, steht es ihm offen, dieselben im Rahmen der Möglichkeiten vorzunehmen, die ihm das Prozessrecht nach Eintritt der Rechtshängigkeit im weiteren Verfahren vor der zuständigen Instanz einräumt, unter der Verfahrensleitung derselben:
So gibt Art. 132
CPC Art. 132 Defective, querulous and abusive submissions SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The court shall set a deadline for rectifying formal defects such as a missing signature or missing power of attorney. In the event of default, the submission is not taken into consideration.
2    The same applies to submissions that are illegible, improper, incomprehensible or incoherent.
3    Querulous or abusive submissions are returned to the sender without further formalities.
ZPO Raum für die Behebung von Mängeln. Vorstellbar ist auch, dass der Ansprecher jene formellen Mängel, die ohnehin innert einer gerichtlichen Nachfrist zu verbessern wären (Art. 132 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 132 Defective, querulous and abusive submissions SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The court shall set a deadline for rectifying formal defects such as a missing signature or missing power of attorney. In the event of default, the submission is not taken into consideration.
2    The same applies to submissions that are illegible, improper, incomprehensible or incoherent.
3    Querulous or abusive submissions are returned to the sender without further formalities.
ZPO), gleich bei der Neueingabe in einem beigefügten Begleitschreiben korrigiert. Die klagende Partei kann sich sodann grundsätzlich ein zweites Mal unbeschränkt äussern, entsprechend den in BGE 144 III 67 E. 2.1 S. 69 und in BGE 140 III 312 E. 6.3.2.3 fixierten Grundsätzen. Hierauf ist sie allenfalls durch das Gericht in Ausübung der gerichtlichen Fragepflicht hinzuweisen (vgl. Art. 56
CPC Art. 56 Court's duty to enquire - If a party's submissions are unclear, contradictory, ambiguous or manifestly incomplete, and the court shall give the party the opportunity to clarify or complete the submission by asking appropriate questions. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
ZPO). Denkbar sind etwa auch das Vorbringen neuer Tatsachen und Beweismittel sowie die Änderung der Klage gemäss den allgemeinen prozessualen Vorgaben (siehe Art. 227
CPC Art. 227 Amendment of the statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    An amendment of the statement of claim is admissible if the new or amended claim is subject to the same type of procedure and:
a  a factual connection exists between the new or amended claim and the original claim; or
b  if the opposing party consents to the amendment of the statement of claim.
2    If the value of the amended action exceeds the material jurisdiction of the court, the court shall transfer the case to a court with greater material jurisdiction.
3    A limitation of the action is permitted at any time; the seised court retains jurisdiction.
, Art. 229
CPC Art. 229 New facts and evidence SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    New facts and new evidence are admissible at the main hearings only if presented immediately and:
a  if they occurred after the exchange of written submissions or after the last instruction hearing ( proper nova); or
b  if they existed before the close of the exchange of written submissions or before the last instruction hearing but could not have been submitted despite reasonable diligence ( improper nova).
2    If there was neither a second round of written submissions nor an instruction hearing, new facts and new evidence may be submitted without limitation at the beginning of the main hearing.
3    Where the court must establish the facts ex officio, new facts and new evidence are admitted until the court begins its deliberations.
und Art. 230
CPC Art. 230 Amendment of the statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    An amendment of the statement of claim at the main hearings is admissible only if:
a  the conditions under Article 227 paragraph 1 are fulfilled; and
b  the amendment is based on new facts or new evidence.
2    Article 227 paragraphs 2 and 3 apply.
ZPO; vgl. BGE 141 III 481 E. 3.2.4 S. 487).
Diese Möglichkeiten relativieren die in der Lehre geäusserte Ansicht, die bundesgerichtliche Rechtsprechung schliesse - angesichts der unterschiedlichen gesetzlichen Anforderungen an Schlichtungsgesuch und Klageschrift - im praktischen Ergebnis die Anwendung von Art. 63
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO auf Fälle aus, in denen zunächst eine Schlichtungsbehörde statt ein Gericht angerufen werde (siehe Erwägung 3.3). Zwar kann das im ordentlichen (und im vereinfachten) Verfahren bestehende Recht, sich ein zweites Mal unbeschränkt zu äussern, eingeschränkt sein, wenn das Schlichtungsverfahren entfällt, weil richtigerweise das summarische Verfahren (vgl. Art. 198 lit. a
CPC Art. 198 Exceptions - Conciliation proceedings are not held: SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1  action for release from a debt (Art. 83 para. 2 DEBA),
2  action for a declaratory judgment (Art. 85 aDEBA),
3  third party action (Art. 106-109 DEBA),
4  action for participation (Art. 111 DEBA),
5  third party actions and actions by the bankrupt estate (Art. 242 DEBA),
6  action to challenge the schedule of claims (Art. 148 and 250 DEBA),
7  action to ascertain new assets (Art. 265a DEBA),
8  action for the recovery of items that are subject to the right of retention (Art. 284 DEBA);
a  in summary proceedings;
b  in proceedings on civil status;
bbis  in proceedings on child maintenance and other child-related issues if a parent has requested the child protection authority to intervene before the proceedings (Art. 298 band 298 dCC 2 );
c  in divorce proceedings;
d  in proceedings for the dissolution or annulment of a registered partnership;
e  for the following actions arising from the DEBA 4 :
f  in disputes for which a court of sole cantonal instance has jurisdiction pursuant to Articles 5 and 6;
g  for principal intervention, counterclaim and third party actions;
h  if the court has set a deadline for filing the action.
ZPO) anwendbar wäre (siehe BGE 144 III 117 E. 2.2). Diese Einschränkung besteht aber auch dann, wenn eine Klage zunächst bei einem Gericht im ordentlichen statt im summarischen Verfahren eingereicht wurde. Wie es sich damit verhält, wurde in BGE 141 III 481 nicht geklärt. Auch vorliegend braucht darauf nicht eingegangen zu werden, da das summarische Verfahren nicht anwendbar ist. Ob ein Ansprecher zunächst an ein unzuständiges Gericht oder aber an eine unzuständige Schlichtungsbehörde gelangt, vermag für die Frage, ob eine Eingabe im Hinblick auf eine Neueinreichung verändert oder verbessert
werden darf, vor diesem Hintergrund grundsätzlich keine Rolle zu spielen. Mit Blick auf die erwähnten prozessualen Behelfe, die der klagenden Partei zur Ergänzung ihrer Rechtsschrift offen stehen, ist von ihr jedenfalls in einer Konstellation wie der vorliegenden zu verlangen, dass sie die gleiche Rechtsschrift, die sie bei der unzuständigen Schlichtungsbehörde eingegeben hat, im Original bei dem von ihr für zuständig gehaltenen Gericht neu einreicht.

3.5.3. Zusammenfassend ist festzuhalten, dass in den soeben beschriebenen Grenzen eine Anpassung der Eingabe im Laufe des Prozesses zulässig ist. Für die Rückdatierung der Rechtshängigkeit gilt aber das Erfordernis der gleichen, im Original einzureichenden Rechtsschrift gemäss BGE 141 III 481 E. 3.2.4 S. 487 f., auch wenn eine Eingabe zunächst bei einer unzuständigen Schlichtungsbehörde eingereicht wurde.

3.5.4. Wenn sich ein Schlichtungsgesuch auf den Mindestinhalt gemäss Art. 202
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
ZPO beschränkt, wird es in der Regel die Klageschrifterfordernisse nicht erfüllen. Nur in einem solchen Fall hätte sich die Frage gestellt, ob dem neu angerufenen Gericht eine ergänzte Klageschrift vorgelegt werden darf. Dabei ist jedenfalls im Auge zu behalten, dass Art. 63
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO nach der ausdrücklichen bundesgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung auch bei sachlicher Unzuständigkeit anwendbar ist (vgl. Urteil 4A 592/2013 vom 4. März 2014 E. 3.2 mit Hinweisen). Vorliegend kann die Frage indes offen gelassen werden, da das Schlichtungsgesuch den Anforderungen an eine Klageschrift genügte (Erwägung 3.5.1).

4.
Der Beschwerdeführer wirft der Vorinstanz - unter anderem - überspitzten Formalismus vor.

4.1. Art. 29 Abs. 1
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
BV verbietet überspitzten Formalismus als besondere Form der Rechtsverweigerung. Eine solche liegt vor, wenn für ein Verfahren rigorose Formvorschriften aufgestellt werden, ohne dass die Strenge sachlich gerechtfertigt wäre, wenn die Behörde formelle Vorschriften mit übertriebener Schärfe handhabt oder an Rechtsschriften überspannte Anforderungen stellt und den Rechtssuchenden den Rechtsweg in unzulässiger Weise versperrt. Wohl sind im Rechtsgang prozessuale Formen unerlässlich, um die ordnungsgemässe und rechtsgleiche Abwicklung des Verfahrens sowie die Durchsetzung des materiellen Rechts zu gewährleisten. Nicht jede prozessuale Formstrenge steht demnach mit Art. 29 Abs. 1
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
BV im Widerspruch. Überspitzter Formalismus ist nur gegeben, wenn die strikte Anwendung der Formvorschriften durch keine schutzwürdigen Interessen gerechtfertigt ist, zum blossen Selbstzweck wird und die Verwirklichung des materiellen Rechts in unhaltbarer Weise erschwert oder verhindert (BGE 142 IV 299 E. 1.3.2; 142 I 10 E. 2.4.2 S. 11 mit Hinweisen; siehe für das Zivilverfahrensrecht BGE 140 III 636 E. 3.5 f.).

4.2. Der Beschwerdeführer macht geltend, er habe eine wortgleiche Eingabe eingereicht, die sich abgesehen von formalen Hinweisen (Titel, Datum und Vermerk zu Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO) nicht von der zunächst eingereichten Fassung unterschieden habe. Eine "Kopie der Originaleingabe" sei ebenfalls innert Frist ein- und die Originaleingabe samt Eingangsstempel nachgereicht worden.

4.3. Die Beschwerdegegnerin verweist in diesem Zusammenhang auf die bundesgerichtliche Praxis. Sie betont, der anwaltlich vertretene Beschwerdeführer habe das Original seines Schlichtungsgesuchs nicht innert Frist bei der Vorinstanz eingereicht, sondern formell eine neue Klage eingegeben. Inwieweit die neu eingereichte Rechtsschrift geändert worden sei, könne nicht von Bedeutung sein. Andernfalls stellten sich "heikle Abgrenzungsfragen", die mit der bundesgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung gerade vermieden werden sollten.

4.4. Die in BGE 141 III 481 angestellten Überlegungen gründen darauf, dass für die Beurteilung von Vorgängen, welche die Wahrung von Fristen beeinflussen, im Interesse der Rechtssicherheit einfache und klare Grundsätze aufzustellen sind (E. 3.2.4 S. 487). Es kann demnach nicht Aufgabe des neu angerufenen Gerichts sein, die Klageschrift daraufhin zu untersuchen, ob und in welchem Umfang sie sich von der zunächst eingereichten Eingabe unterscheidet und ob die Verschiedenheit der beiden Eingaben ein Ausmass erreicht, das eine Rückdatierung der Rechtshängigkeit nicht mehr rechtfertigen lässt. Von einer solchen Prüfung ist ein Gericht in praktikabler Weise grundsätzlich nur dann befreit, wenn ein Ansprecher die mit dem Eingangsstempel versehene Originaleingabe einreicht.
Zu berücksichtigen ist nun einerseits, dass der Beschwerdeführer seiner beim Handelsgericht eingereichten Rechtsschrift rechtzeitig (also innert Monatsfrist nach Art. 63 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
ZPO) eine Kopie seiner Eingabe an die Schlichtungsbehörde beigelegt hatte. Andererseits ist zu beachten, dass Schlichtungsgesuche in der Regel sehr kurz sind. Art. 202 Abs. 2
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
ZPO verlangt einzig die Bezeichnung von Gegenpartei, Rechtsbegehren und Streitgegenstand. Entsprechend ist ohne Weiteres erkennbar, ob die beiden eingereichten Versionen (die neu eingegebene Klageschrift und das ursprüngliche Schlichtungsgesuch) identisch sind. Eine solche Prüfung wäre dem Handelsgericht auch im vorliegenden Fall ohne nennenswerten Aufwand möglich gewesen, woran nichts ändert, dass der Beschwerdeführer in seinem nicht einmal 3.5 Seiten umfassenden Schlichtungsgesuch (inklusive Deckblatt) eine halbe Seite Sachverhalt und vier Beweismittel (darunter die Anwaltsvollmacht) anfügte. Dass der Beschwerdeführer am 2. Oktober 2017 eine Kopie und nicht das Original des Schlichtungsgesuchs vom 28. August 2017 eingab, schadet unter diesen Umständen nicht; vielmehr hätte die Nachreichung des Originals zugelassen werden müssen. Das gegenteilige Vorgehen der Vorinstanz, die
nachträgliche Eingabe des (rechtzeitig in Kopie eingereichten) Originals nicht zuzulassen und aus diesem Grund die Rückdatierung der Rechtshängigkeit abzulehnen, ist überspitzt formalistisch und verstösst gegen Art. 29 Abs. 1
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
BV. Folglich trägt die für die Klageabweisung massgebliche Begründung der Vorinstanz nicht mehr. Die Beschwerde erweist sich als begründet.

4.5. Bei dieser Sachlage kann offen bleiben, wie es sich mit der weiteren in der Beschwerde geübten Kritik verhält, so etwa derjenigen, die Vorinstanz habe den Grundsatz von Treu und Glauben (Art. 52
CPC Art. 52 Acting in good faith - All those who participate in proceedings must act in good faith. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
ZPO) verletzt, weil sie ohne Ankündigung ihre Praxis geändert habe.

5.
Die Beschwerde ist gutzuheissen. Das angefochtene Urteil des Handelsgerichts ist aufzuheben. Die Sache ist zur weiteren Behandlung an die Vorinstanz zurückzuweisen.
Ausgangsgemäss wird die Beschwerdegegnerin kosten- und entschädigungspflichtig (Art. 66 Abs. 1
CPC Art. 52 Acting in good faith - All those who participate in proceedings must act in good faith. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
und Art. 68 Abs. 2
CPC Art. 52 Acting in good faith - All those who participate in proceedings must act in good faith. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
BGG).

Demnach erkennt das Bundesgericht:

1.
Die Beschwerde wird gutgeheissen. Der Entscheid des Handelsgerichts des Kantons Bern vom 6. Dezember 2018 (HG 17 169) wird aufgehoben. Die Sache wird zur weiteren Behandlung an die Vorinstanz zurückgewiesen.

2.
Die Gerichtskosten von Fr. 5'000.-- werden der Beschwerdegegnerin auferlegt.

3.
Die Beschwerdegegnerin hat den Beschwerdeführer für das bundesgerichtliche Verfahren mit Fr. 6'000.-- zu entschädigen.

4.
Dieses Urteil wird den Parteien und dem Handelsgericht des Kantons Bern schriftlich mitgeteilt.

Lausanne, 20. September 2019

Im Namen der I. zivilrechtlichen Abteilung
des Schweizerischen Bundesgerichts

Die Präsidentin: Kiss

Der Gerichtsschreiber: Stähle
Decision information   •   DEFRITEN
Decision : 4A_44/2019
Date : 20. September 2019
Published : 04. Oktober 2019
Court : Federal court
Status : Suggested for publication
Subject area :
Regeste : Anfechtung eines Generalversammlungsbeschlusses; Rechtshängigkeit


Legislation register
BGG: 66  68  74  75  90
BV: 29
0 Art. 29 General procedural guarantees SR 101 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
1    Every person has the right to equal and fair treatment in judicial and administrative proceedings and to have their case decided within a reasonable time.
2    Each party to a case has the right to be heard.
3    Any person who does not have sufficient means has the right to free legal advice and assistance unless their case appears to have no prospect of success. If it is necessary in order to safeguard their rights, they also have the right to free legal representation in court.
OR: 706a
0 Art. 706a VII. Challenging resolutions of the general meeting / 2. Procedure - 2. Procedure SR 220 Federal Act on the Amendment of the Swiss Civil Code - Part Five: The Code of Obligations
1    The right to challenge lapses if the action is not brought within two months of the general meeting.
2    Where the board of directors is the claimant, the court appoints a representative for the company.
3    … 2
ZPO: 6 
CPC Art. 6 Commercial Court SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The cantons may designate a special court that has jurisdiction as sole cantonal instance for commercial disputes (Commercial Court).
2    A dispute is considered commercial, if:
a  it concerns the commercial activity of at least one party;
b  the decision is subject to an objection in civil matters to the Federal Supreme Court; and
c  the parties are registered in the Swiss Commercial Registry or in an equivalent foreign registry.
3    If only the defendant is registered in the Swiss Commercial Register or in an equivalent foreign register, but all the other conditions are met, the plaintiff may choose between the Commercial Court and the ordinary court.
4    The cantons may also assign to the Commercial Court:
a  the disputes mentioned in Article 5 paragraph 1;
b  the disputes relating to the law of commercial companies and cooperatives.
5    The Commercial Court is also competent to order interim measures before an action is pending.
52 
CPC Art. 52 Acting in good faith - All those who participate in proceedings must act in good faith. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
53 
CPC Art. 53 Right to be heard SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The parties have the right to be heard.
2    They have in particular the right to consult the case files and to obtain copies thereof provided this does not conflict with overriding public or private interests.
56 
CPC Art. 56 Court's duty to enquire - If a party's submissions are unclear, contradictory, ambiguous or manifestly incomplete, and the court shall give the party the opportunity to clarify or complete the submission by asking appropriate questions. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
60a  63 
CPC Art. 63 Pendency where the court has no jurisdiction or the procedure is incorrect SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    If a submission that has been withdrawn or rejected due to lack of jurisdiction is filed again with the competent conciliation authority or court within one month of withdrawal or the declaration of non-admissibility, the date of the first filing is deemed to be the date of pendency.
2    The same applies if the claim was not filed under the proper procedure.
3    The special statutory deadlines for filing actions under the DEBA 1 are reserved.
64 
CPC Art. 64 Effects of pendency SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The pendency of an action has in particular the following effects:
a  the subject matter of the dispute may not be made pending elsewhere between the same parties;
b  the territorial jurisdiction of the court is maintained.
2    When compliance with statutory deadline under private law depends on the date of the statement of claim, of raising an action or of another act initiating legal proceedings, the relevant moment is that of pendency in accordance with this Code.
129 
CPC Art. 129 - The proceedings shall be held in the official language of the canton in which the case is heard. Cantons that recognise two or more official languages shall regulate their use in the proceedings. SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
132 
CPC Art. 132 Defective, querulous and abusive submissions SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The court shall set a deadline for rectifying formal defects such as a missing signature or missing power of attorney. In the event of default, the submission is not taken into consideration.
2    The same applies to submissions that are illegible, improper, incomprehensible or incoherent.
3    Querulous or abusive submissions are returned to the sender without further formalities.
198 
CPC Art. 198 Exceptions - Conciliation proceedings are not held: SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1  action for release from a debt (Art. 83 para. 2 DEBA),
2  action for a declaratory judgment (Art. 85 aDEBA),
3  third party action (Art. 106-109 DEBA),
4  action for participation (Art. 111 DEBA),
5  third party actions and actions by the bankrupt estate (Art. 242 DEBA),
6  action to challenge the schedule of claims (Art. 148 and 250 DEBA),
7  action to ascertain new assets (Art. 265a DEBA),
8  action for the recovery of items that are subject to the right of retention (Art. 284 DEBA);
a  in summary proceedings;
b  in proceedings on civil status;
bbis  in proceedings on child maintenance and other child-related issues if a parent has requested the child protection authority to intervene before the proceedings (Art. 298 band 298 dCC 2 );
c  in divorce proceedings;
d  in proceedings for the dissolution or annulment of a registered partnership;
e  for the following actions arising from the DEBA 4 :
f  in disputes for which a court of sole cantonal instance has jurisdiction pursuant to Articles 5 and 6;
g  for principal intervention, counterclaim and third party actions;
h  if the court has set a deadline for filing the action.
202 
CPC Art. 202 Initiation SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    Proceedings are initiated by an application for conciliation. The application may be filed in the forms provided for by Article 130 or orally for the record before the conciliation authority.
2    The application for conciliation must identify the opposing party and include the prayers for relief and a description of the matter in dispute.
3    The conciliation authority shall serve the opposing party with the application immediately and at the same time summon the parties to a hearing.
4    In the disputes mentioned in Article 200, it may as an exception order the exchange of written submissions if it is considering a proposed judgment under Article 210 or a decision under Article 212.
221 
CPC Art. 221 Statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    The statement of claim contains:
a  the designation of the parties and their representatives, if any:
b  the prayers for relief;
c  a statement of the value in dispute;
d  the allegations of fact;
e  notice of the evidence offered for each allegation of fact;
f  the date and signature.
2    The following must be filed together with the statement of claim:
a  a power of attorney where a party is represented;
b  the authorisation to proceed or the declaration that conciliation is being waived, if applicable;
c  the available physical records to be offered in evidence;
d  a list of the evidence offered.
3    The statement of claim may include a statement of legal grounds.
227 
CPC Art. 227 Amendment of the statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    An amendment of the statement of claim is admissible if the new or amended claim is subject to the same type of procedure and:
a  a factual connection exists between the new or amended claim and the original claim; or
b  if the opposing party consents to the amendment of the statement of claim.
2    If the value of the amended action exceeds the material jurisdiction of the court, the court shall transfer the case to a court with greater material jurisdiction.
3    A limitation of the action is permitted at any time; the seised court retains jurisdiction.
229 
CPC Art. 229 New facts and evidence SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    New facts and new evidence are admissible at the main hearings only if presented immediately and:
a  if they occurred after the exchange of written submissions or after the last instruction hearing ( proper nova); or
b  if they existed before the close of the exchange of written submissions or before the last instruction hearing but could not have been submitted despite reasonable diligence ( improper nova).
2    If there was neither a second round of written submissions nor an instruction hearing, new facts and new evidence may be submitted without limitation at the beginning of the main hearing.
3    Where the court must establish the facts ex officio, new facts and new evidence are admitted until the court begins its deliberations.
230
CPC Art. 230 Amendment of the statement of claim SR 272 Swiss Civil Procedure Code - Civil Procedure Code
1    An amendment of the statement of claim at the main hearings is admissible only if:
a  the conditions under Article 227 paragraph 1 are fulfilled; and
b  the amendment is based on new facts or new evidence.
2    Article 227 paragraphs 2 and 3 apply.
BGE-register
138-III-610 • 138-III-799 • 139-III-273 • 139-III-67 • 140-III-312 • 140-III-636 • 141-III-481 • 142-I-10 • 142-IV-299 • 144-III-117 • 144-III-67
Weitere Urteile ab 2000
4A_44/2019 • 4A_592/2013
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ZBJV
2017 S.243